The major hydrocarbon
pipelines for Turkey are shown
at the left. Most are for natural
gas. A major problem after the
1999 Izmit earthquake was that
the Tupras refinery, which
processes about 90% of crude oil
imports into Turkey, was on fire
for five days. Quite apart from
danger to surrounding areas and
the need to commit firefighters,  
this places severe demands on
other energy sources.    
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